Malnutrition: diagnosis, screening and consequences | Nutrisens

Malnutrition: diagnosis, screening and consequences

Ageing well

26 February 2019
Catégorie : 

In his work entitled Nutrition Clinique Pratique, Stéphane Schneider examines malnutrition. The book gives us the opportunity to issue a reminder of the key issues relating to the condition.

Overview

■  Malnutrition is defined as a deficiency in energy, protein or any other macro or micronutrient that affects bodily functions and/or body composition and worsens conditions. Muscles are the part of the body most affected by malnutrition.

Consequences of malnutrition 

■ Increase in morbidity and mortality rates of chronic and acute diseases
■ Increase in the likelihood of:
- infection, particularly hospital-acquired and pulmonary
- osteopenia/osteoporosis
- dependence, falling and handicap
- bedsores and thromboembolic disorders 
- fractures
- hypothermia
■ Delays cure
■ Reduces efficiency of treatments
■ Increases length of convalescence, number of prescriptions and hospital costs
■ Affects quality of life, well-being and social relations                                                                                                                                                     

According to Stratton et al

■ The condition can be caused by a lack of appropriate intake and/or an increase in loss and/or and increase in requirements. It is associated with certain chronic diseases.

Three types of malnutrition :

- Malnutrition in conjunction with an inflammatory disease is defined as cachexia

- Malnutrition in conjunction with a non-inflammatory disease (e.g. increase in loss or increased requirements)

- Non disease-related malnutrition (insufficient intake)

 

Principal chronic diseases associated with malnutrition 

Disease/Age Consequences of
Cancers 39%
AIDS 5 à 10%
Kidney disease 25% (kidney disease) à 70% (dialysis)
Respiratory disease 20 à 70%
Chronic pancreatitis 67%
Chronic liver conditions 30%
IBD 15%
Neuromuscular disorders 15-55%
Neurological disorders with difficulty swallowing 100% Swallowing difficulties as a result of a stroke
Patients aged 70-80, at home 3-5%
Patients aged over 80 10%
Patients in care, aged over 60  20-30%

According to Stratton et al

■ A combination of symptoms indicate malnutrition

Symptoms to watch out for

■ Memory loss and lack of concentration

■ Mid-day asthenia

■ Loss of physical ability

■ Apathy

■ Digestive symptoms: anorexia, dysphagia and odynophagia, slow digestion, dyspepsia, diarrhoea and/or constipation

 

■ A number of concording clinical, biological and MNA or NRI elements lead to a diagnosis of malnutrition.

Malnutrition is diagnosed in the presence of one or more of the following criteria: 

Malnutrition Severe Malnutrition 

 <70 years

BMI: 16-18.5
Loss of over 5% body weight over 1 month 
or loss of over 10% body weight over 6 months
Albumin level <30g/l
Prealbumin level <0.11g/l

<70 years

BMI <16
Loss of over 10% body weight over 1 month 
or loss of over 15% body weight over 6 months
Albumin level <20g/l
Prealbumin level <0.05g/l

>70 years

BMI: 18-21
Albumin level <35g/l
MNA <17 or MNA-SF <8

>70 years

BMI <18
Albumin level <30g/l

Criteria issued by HAS, the French health authority

Want to

know more?

Our experts share their knowledge!

Read our advice

 

Browse our

online store

Nutrisens products are available online!

Browse the store

 

NEED SOME ADVICE?
HAVE A QUESTION?

Our dietician
is here to help

  
Send her a message

Monday to Friday, 9-12am and 2-5pm