Stages of CKD | Nutrisens

Chronic kidney disease develops in five stages.

In stages 1 to 4, the focus is on retaining renal functioning. In the last stage, dialysis or transplant are the only solutions.

Recommended intake in dialysis patients

  STAGE 1 STAGE 2 STAGE 3 STAGE 4 STAGE 5
Kidney functions Over 90% 60–89% 30–59% 15–29% Less than 15%
Description Normal kidney function.   Mildly reduced kidney function. Moderately reduced kidney function. Severely reduced kidney function. Very severe, or end-stage kidney failure. Life threatening.
Symptoms No apparent symptoms. Normal levels of urea and creatinine. No apparent symptoms. Normal or slightly above average levels of urea and creatinine. Fatigue, loss of appetite, itching. Increased level of creatinine, urea and sometimes anaemia. Fatigue, loss of appetite, persistent itching. Insomnia, hampered breathing, itching and frequent vomiting. High level of creatinine and urea.
Prevention / Treatment Identify causes and treat them. Monitor creatinine levels, blood pressure and general state of health and well-being. Attempt to prevent or slow down the deterioration of kidney function. Try to prevent or slow down the deterioration of kidney function. Patient comes to terms with the illness and treatment options. Planning for end-stage renal failure, dialysis and transplant. Set up treatment: dialysis or transplant.
Nutrition / Diet Low protein diet, maintain nutrition levels, balance ions (phosphorus, sodium, potassium, calcium etc.) Reduce water intake. Iron supplements for anaemia. Reduce or adjust protein intake (if malnutrition). Reduce water intake (according to diuresis and oedema); iron supplements for anaemia. Protein supplements (hypercatabolism during dialysis). Reduce intake of sodium, phosphorus and potassium.

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