In stages 1 to 4, the focus is on retaining renal functioning. In the last stage, dialysis or transplant are the only solutions.
Recommended intake in dialysis patients
|STAGE 1||STAGE 2||STAGE 3||STAGE 4||STAGE 5|
|Kidney functions||Over 90%||60–89%||30–59%||15–29%||Less than 15%|
|Description||Normal kidney function.||Mildly reduced kidney function.||Moderately reduced kidney function.||Severely reduced kidney function.||Very severe, or end-stage kidney failure. Life threatening.|
|Symptoms||No apparent symptoms. Normal levels of urea and creatinine.||No apparent symptoms. Normal or slightly above average levels of urea and creatinine.||Fatigue, loss of appetite, itching. Increased level of creatinine, urea and sometimes anaemia.||Fatigue, loss of appetite, persistent itching.||Insomnia, hampered breathing, itching and frequent vomiting. High level of creatinine and urea.|
|Prevention / Treatment||Identify causes and treat them.||Monitor creatinine levels, blood pressure and general state of health and well-being. Attempt to prevent or slow down the deterioration of kidney function.||Try to prevent or slow down the deterioration of kidney function. Patient comes to terms with the illness and treatment options.||Planning for end-stage renal failure, dialysis and transplant.||Set up treatment: dialysis or transplant.|
|Nutrition / Diet||Low protein diet, maintain nutrition levels, balance ions (phosphorus, sodium, potassium, calcium etc.)||Reduce water intake. Iron supplements for anaemia. Reduce or adjust protein intake (if malnutrition).||Reduce water intake (according to diuresis and oedema); iron supplements for anaemia. Protein supplements (hypercatabolism during dialysis). Reduce intake of sodium, phosphorus and potassium.|